The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) (https://www.jacksonheartstudy.org/) initiated in 1998 is a longitudinal investigation of genetic and environmental risk factors associated with the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. In addition, the JHS conducts community education and outreach activities to promote healthy lifestyles and reduce disease risk burden, undergraduate and graduate level research training programs, and high school science and math enrichment programs to prepare and encourage underrepresented minority students to pursue biomedical careers. The JHS is funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD).
The JHS represents an expansion of the Jackson Field Center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (http://www2.cscc.unc.edu/aric/) to broaden data collection in an African American population and to increase access to and participation of African American populations and scientists in biomedical research and professions. The JHS recruited 5306 African American residents living in the Jackson, Mississippi, metropolitan area of Hinds, Madison, and Rankin Counties. Participants were enrolled from 4 recruitment pools: random, 17%; volunteer, 30%; currently enrolled in the ARIC Study, 31% and secondary family members, 22%. Recruitment was limited to non-institutionalized adult African American men and women, 35-84 years old, except in a nested family cohort where those 21 to 34 years of age were also eligible. The final cohort of participants enrolled during the baseline exam included 6.6% of all African American men and women residents of the Jackson Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area aged 35-84 (N=76,426, US Census 2000). Among these participants, approximately 3400 gave consent that allows genetic research.
JHS participants received three back-to-back clinical examinations (Exam 1, 2000-2004; Exam 2, 2005-2008; and Exam 3, 2009-2013) that have generated extensive longitudinal data on traditional and putative cardiovascular disease risk factors and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease from echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Biological samples (i.e., blood and urine) have been assayed for putative biochemical risk factors and stored for future research. DNA has been extracted and lymphocytes have been cryopreserved for studies of candidate genes, genome-wide scanning, expression, and other –omics investigations.
In addition, JHS participants are contacted annually by telephone to update personal and health information including vital status, interim medical events, hospitalizations, functional status and sociocultural information. Ongoing cohort surveillance for cardiovascular events (i.e., coronary heart disease and related procedures, heart failure, and stroke) and deaths also involves data linkage with hospital discharge lists of JHS catchment area hospitals and the National Death Index (NDI). Medical records of cardiovascular disease related hospitalizations and death certificates are abstracted and used for adjudication of cardiovascular events and related deaths. The current JHS contracts (2018-2024) will include a clinical examination (Exam 4, 2/2020-11/2022) and investigation of the link between cardiovascular health and brain health.
The JHS serves as a resource to the scientific community for novel research, promotes cardiovascular health in the local community, and encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue biomedical careers. The JHS is supported by contracts from the NHLBI and the NIMHD and is conducted in collaboration with Jackson State University (HHSN268201800013), Tougaloo College (HHSN268201800014), the Mississippi State Department of Health (HHSN268201800015) and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (HHSN268201800010, HHSN268201800011 and HHSN268201800012).